• icon

Forthcoming Events

BES Expo 2008

Broadcast Engineering Society (India) S1 organised an International Conference & Exhibition on "Terrestrial and Satellite Broadcasting -BES EXPO 98" at Hotel Taj Palace, New Delhi from January 19-21, 1998. This event comprised three days of trade exhibition and a concurrent two-day conference on the theme "New Media Technologies - Applications for Socio-Economic Development".
BES Expo 98 was approved and supported by Ministry of I&B, Deptt. of Electronics - Govt. of India, All India Radio, Doordarshan India,  Society of Broadcast Engineers -USA, Cable Operators Federation of India and PTC India It Foundation. A total number of 44 exhibitors from overseas and India displayed their ~ products and services of broadcasting for the future whereas about 740 delegates attended the conference.

Opening Ceremony
BES Expo 98 was inaugurated by Mr. C. R. Kamalanathan, Secretary, Information & Broadcasting. Mr. S.Jaipal Reddy, Hon'ble Minister, I&B and Mr. Nikhil Chakravartty, Chairman, Prasar Bharati could not attend the function due to last minute engagements and  the minister's address was read out in absentia by Mr. H.S. Jolly. In his address Minister said that "broadcasters should playa positive role in bringing about an intellectual revolution in the country and should stick to the basic needs of the Indian culture and society in general. If they take up this role they would be able to assist in the eradication of illiteracy and superstition", he said adding that the channels could help in promoting family welfare programmes as well. He asked Indian broadcasters to master the fast changing broadcast technologies and use them for producing high quality programmes at par with the international standard. He emphasised that the technocrats have a crucial role to play in the clime of economic liberalisation, hence appropriate technologies should be chosen paving the way for the flow of technical excellence to the country improving the caliber and knowledge of Indian technocrats. He further added that the domestic broadcast industry should produce equipment both for Indian broadcasters and foreign agencies.
Mr. Kamalanathan said the Broadcast Bill was being enacted by the government almost a century after the Indian Telegraph Act came into force in 1870s. A lot of technological, political, social and economic changes had been brought about in the country during this period including' introduction of terrestrial and satellite broadcasting. He said that while legislating the Broadcasting Bill it would have to be kept in .mind that the freeing of the air- waves should not bring about a cultural invasion in the country. While enacting the legislation, the economic, political, social and cultural factors would have to be taken into consideration, he said.

Dr. Henry Chasia, Deputy Secretary General, International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Geneva in his Keynote address said that ITU was trying hard to see that the exponential growth of the information and telecommunication technologies in recent years did not widen the economic gap between the rich and the poor in the world. He expressed concern that with the invention of latest information and telecommunication technologies, high-cost computer based jobs were being transferred from the developed western countries to developing countries including India. It was not only creating unemployment in the developing countries, but was also creating the gap between the rich and the poor, he added. Further he told that lTU was trying hard to stop the misuse of information technologies. Underlying the importance of information technologies, Dr. Chasia said as many as $360 billion would be needed for creating the basic telecommunications infrastructure in Asia during the next decade and in the Asia-Pacific region an investment of $120 billion would be needed for this purpose by the year 2000.
Mr. K.C.C. Raja, President of BES(I) in his welcome address described important activities of the society since its inception in 1987. He reiterated that prime objective of bringing the broadcast professionals, experts and the broadcast industry together on a common platform to discuss, deliberate and plan for integrated development of the broadcasting in India. He added that with the liberalisation and private participation, the broadcasting sector has become more competitive.
BES Annual Awards for excellence were given to five talented professionals by Mr. C.R. Kamalanathan, Secretary, I&B.
Mr. P.S. Sundaram, Hon. Secretary, BES(I) proposed a vote of thanks.
The inaugural function was attended by about 1000 invitees, exhibitors, delegates and media persons.


The exhibition was inaugurated by Dr. Henry Chasia, Dy. Director General, International Telecommunication Union, Geneva on 19 Jan.'98 at Shahjehan Hall, Hotel Taj Palace, New Delhi. 44 exhibitors participated in the exhibition. They exhibited newest and most innovative technologies, services and applications for the broadcasting industry providing wide spectrum of products and demonstrations.

The major attraction was centered around Sony, Panasonic and AIR booths. Sony's DVCAM, Panasonic's DVCPRO and AIR's Radio-on- Demand was the focus of attention. Panasonic with their distributor Visual Technologies exhibited the entire DVCPRO range of products which included AJ-LT75, DVCPRO Laptop Editor, AJ-D750 VTR, AJ-D650 VTR and AJ-D640 Video Cassette Recorder/Player. Sony displayed the entire DVCAM range- DSR-30P Digital Video Cassette Recorder/Player, DCR-IP dockable recorder unit alongwith the Betacam SX, DSR-200P Digital Camcoder and Non-linear Editing system ES- 7. Through the Radio-on-Demand service of AIR on FM transmitter, one could listen to the sounds of one's choice by just making a telephone call. The Research Department of AIR has indigenously developed a computer based audio recording and automatic playback system to process and transmit listener's request through the FM transmitters. It was intimated that this service will be made available to the public from January 26, 1998 on experimental basis from 12 noon to 2 PM on 106.4 MHz.

The Snell & Wilcox alongwith their distributor Benchmark Microsystems displayed the Magic DaVE, four input DYE and switcher and also Magic Da VE 8D eight input model. Benchmark also exhibited the Matrox Digimix video/graphics mixer with 2D DVE.

BDL Autoscript demonstrated BDL teleprompter software on Windows called' Winplus, which is a multilingual software  offering prompting in any language supported  by Windows. This also includes most of the s Indian languages. CDAC Pune also displayed  multilingual software and media tycoon which  is on a single mode plug-n-play solution for  MPEG-II playback with multimedia I capabilities that also displayed LIPS multilingual software, multiprompter,  Chameleon Video CD creator, Pixel Power and Chyron displayed their range of high -end and character generators.
Anton Bauer alongwith their distributor Perlink I India displayed Ultralight System, first on- tI camera lighting systems which can work with any available light to create studio quality images. Perlink India also had their other principals like Radamec Broadcast Systems, Philips, Pixel Power and Vinten Broadcast. Vinten Broadcast demonstrated their range of tripod and Pedestal for cameras with serial drag technology used for ENG, EFP and Studio purposes.

Cartoni SpA had also demonstrated the exhaustive range of tripods, pedestals and  camera support accessories. 
Tata Elexi displayed Discrete Logic's Flint and  frost 3D against real time broadcast graphics solutions and Alias/W avefronts power  animators. TektroIrix displayed their Profile's  Live Event Management System which is a  versatile production system for live coverage of it events.

Thomcast displayed their range of latest FM  and AM transmitters. Thomson Broadcast exhibited the 1657-12 bit digital cameras  alongwith their MPEG-2 products.
 Doordarshan had demonstrated Ghost Cancellation system. "GCR Signal 'c"  recommended by ITU for use with PAL system had been inserted on a single line 318 in the VBI in the TV transmitter Doordarshan-l located at Pitampura. The reception confirms substantial improvement in the received TV signal. Entel displayed Ikegami cameras HL38, HL57. Setron India and Tascam exhibited digital consoles, digital multitrack recorder. A VF distributors displayed the product of their principals David GmbH, Dig As -a complete digital audio system for Radio on Window 95 and NT.
Balcar SA displayed their new TV fluorescent high frequency and high intensity cold lights.
BEL and GCEL had displayed their PM & TV transmitters.


EXHIBITORS             44
Overseas                   23
National                       21
VISITORS                   2872
Arrangements were also made for the presentations on complimentary basis to the exhibitors to present their products to the selected invited audience.


The conference on the theme of "New Media Technologies -Applications for Socio- Economic Development" focused on new and innovative technologies and services of broadcasting for the future. The conference was held on 20 & 21 January and dealt with the following six technical sessions:
1. Digital Broadcasting (Terrestrial) - Emerging Scenario
2. Digital Broadcasting (Satellite) -Emerging Scenario
3. Trends in Programme Production Techniques
4. Emerging Trends in Internet & Multimedia Broadcasting 
5. DTH, MMDS & Information Services -H Strategic Technologies
6. Competitive Broadcast Environment -B Regulatory Aspects and Liberalisation Challenges

Eminent broadcast professionals and technologists from leading organisations presented papers in the Conference focusing on  the future technologies and products.

First Keynote 

The conference started with the keynote address session chaired by Mr. H. M. Joshi, E-in-C, AIR. The keynote address was delivered by Mr. Om P. Khushu, Director' (Technical), Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union on "The March of Digital Technology". He told that digital revolution has now truly arrived in Asia and cable, satellite & terrestrial operators are making the move from analogue to digital. As regards Radio, the Digital Audio Broadcasting technology is now mature and consumer products are becoming available at reasonable cost. The systems based on Eureka 147 and World Space are being adopted by the broadcasting organisations. The digital technology can be even cashed in the analogue environment. NHK Japan has developed DARC whose applications are limitless. He also told that for development of digital HF  technology, the broadcasters have recognised ~ that a single digital standard must be agreed in order for shortwave radio to remain truely , universal service and an organisation names Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) has been formed to harmonise international development and promote the acceptance of common system.

Digital Terrestrial Television is without any doubt the biggest revolution in the industry since the change from Black & White TV to Colour. The potential benefits are so striking that broadcasters in many countries are making the transition from analogue to digital. However, three established systems are available worldwide -ATSC, DVB-T and BST -OFDM, but they have no common standards. DVB- T appears to be likely choice in many countries. Tests are underway in Australia, China, Korea and New Zealand. In Asia, Japan plans to start DVB-T services in the year 2000 whereas Republic of Korea plans to introduce this service gradually between 2001 to 2010. One major issue that is coming in the way of more wide spread implementation is the cost of network infrastructure upgrades. In Japan it has been estimated that the cost will be US$ 100 million.


SESSION                                6
KEYNOTE ADDRESS             2
SPEAKER                               24
DELEGATE                             745


This session deliberated on "Digital Broadcasting (Terrestrial) -Emerging Scenario" and was chaired by Mr.C.W. Kelly, Broadcast Electronics, Inc., USA. Mr. Craig Norris, Sony Corp., Hong Kong presented his paper on "Digital Broadcasting (Terrestrial) -Emerging Scenario". The discussion highlighted the existence of two competin& standards -DVB-T and ATSC.

Although the original impetus for digital terrestrial broadcasting in the USA was High Definition Television (HDTV), the success of MPEG2 compression has opened the door to other options such as multiple channels of Standard Definition Television (SDTV) as well as interactive multi-media applications and data broadcasting. The A TSC standard itself has been deliberately left "open" to allow the computer industry to participate in digital broadcasting.
The European impetus on the other hand, was to establish a standard receiving platform which hopefully would eliminate the need of multiple set top boxes for multiple services. The DVB- T choice of COFDM also provides the possibility of single frequency terrestrial networks.
The two standards are now competing for acceptance in the undecided areas outside of Europe and North America.
He opined that Broadcast regulatory bodies around the world must now decide which standard is best for their country.
The next paper was presented by Mr. Martyn J. Horspool, Harris Broadcast Division, USA who spoke on "A New Solid State UHF Television Transmitter Design for Digital Terrestrial Broadcasting". He pointed out that the adoption of new digital television standards in both the USA and Europe, has created new requirements for RF transmission equipment. Conventional analogue transmitters are not necessarily the optimum solution for the transmission of digital signals.
He also addressed the development of a new high power solid state UHF transmitter system, designed specifically for the A TSC DTV and the European DVB- T transmission standards.
Factors that are examined include:

  • Peak and average power requirements .
  • Designing for optimum cost & comparison with tube alternatives
  • Solid state RF device selection criteria .RF amplifier design and linearity requirements
  • A microprocessor based control system .
  • Optimization of the transmitter system architecture for maximum on-air system availability .

Mr. Mark A. Atiken, Comark comm. Inc., USA spoke on "Digital Tele., Implementation Solutions". The announcements in the U.S. by the FCC about the ATSC (Advanced Television System Committee) standard for DTV (Digital Television), the FCC allocation of digital spectrum for TV broadcasting and the wide variety of possible content in the form of pictures, sound and data open revolutionary new digital service opportunities. DVB's aggressive deployment and adoption provide similar opportunities.
In the fast paced arena of television broadcasting, new products and services are required to meet the diverse needs of broadcasters. These new broadcast transmission and distribution technologies are in various stages of development. The integration and implementation .of these technologies, within the studio as well as the transmission site, demand a new level of understanding.
He told that the world market, the technologies and equipment being developed and sold extend across the entire broadcast spectrum, and continue to fit the diverse requirements of multiple world digital standards. World class providers are offering the broadcast industry the combined product and intellectual resources to ensure that broadcasters can offer continued leadership in a rapidly changing and evolving broadcast market.

The next paper was from Mr. Jean-Jacques, DELMAS, TDF, France who deliberated on "Digital Audio Broadcasting in the AM bands below 30 MHz". He described the existing AM networks and a need for the digital transmission. He gave the details of the five digital system proposals -Thomcast Skywave 2000, USA Digital Radio (AM), CCETT system, VOA/JPL and T2M system. The project NADffi-Eureka 1559 is led by Thomcast. DRM (Digital Radio Mondiale) is the consortium to develop the vision of digital AM as a vital tool for the national and r international broadcasting. They will also 1: provide single solution for L/W, MW and SW. He informed that participants have shown l sufficient motivation, interest and enthusiasm a to believe that an agreement is possible on  a single world wide standard which will lead to c new market opportunities for all. 

The last speaker of the session was r Mr. P. Bureau, Thomcast, France who dwelt on s "An Overview of Terrestrial Digital Television Broadcasting and the Engineering Tasks t required to introduce a Service". He described that Digital techniques entered the television programme production world many years ago r bringing new creative possibilities and new ways of working. Now digital techniques are entering the programme broadcasting field. The changes will be more profound than just adding a set-top box to each customer's TV set. He  said that broadcast engineers will have to learn  new procedures and broadcasting organisations ( will benefit from the new multi-service possibilities (and new channels previously ~ unavailable) offered by the digital terrestrial  transmission systems.

Session 2
This session devoted to "Digital Broadcasting (Satellite) -Emerging Scenario" was chaired  by Mr.K.M. Paul, Chief Engineer, AIR.

Mr. Peter Senger, Deutsche Welle, Germany I deliberated on "Overview of World DAB ~ Forum with particular emphasis on Satellite  DAB". He said that a digital broadcasting system using advance modulation techniques may be introduced into the current terrestrial frequency bands allocated to broadcasting without disturbing existing radio services. Digital audio broadcasting services offered the  prospect of early service by satellite systems.

In the worldwide standardisation process ( carried out by ITU has resulted in recommending Eureka-147 DAB system for both terrestrial and satellite delivery to vehicular, portable and fixed receivers in UHFNHF range and L-band. This system is able to carry, in addition to audio programmes, also programmes associated and independent data services compatible with the Radio Data System (RDS), and offers the potential of expanding radio broadcasting to the future multimedia services and the information superhighway infrastructure. The implementation phase of the development has now been reached, with operational or pilot services underway in many countries. He opined that unless broadcasters/operators and manufacturing industries implement digital audio broadcasting services in an appropriate time scale, they will lag behind. Access to the frequency spectrum may also become difficult.
Next paper was presented by Mr. Anil K. Kochhar of WorldS pace Inc., USA on "The WorldSpace System: Architecture, Plans and Technologies". He said that the WorldSpace System will bring modem digital radio technology to several parts of the world using three geostationary satellites to be launched beginning from June 1998 onwards. Through the use of onboard base-band processing and powerful L-band Traveling- Wave Tube Amplifiers (TWT As), the WorldSpace transmissions will be received by stationary, portable hand-held or car radios. Broadcasters can uplink either from centralized hubs or individual feeder links. located anywhere in the global coverage's of the three planned satellites.
He also described the overall system architecture, coverages, operational arrangements and key technologies in the space segment and for the radio receivers. Salient features of the spacecraft under manufacture and the ground network were also described. The adaptability of the all-digital pipeline to the end-users for future services were also touched upon.
He opined that the rapidly evolving WorldS pace system represents a confluence of an unfulfilled service gap with appropriate technologies at the system, spacecraft and radio receiver levels. What initially started as a serious sociological objective is now well on its way to becoming a global operation without diluting the original raison d' etre. Its success will not be easy, but when it does happen, it will be a vindication of the original inspiration of its founders and the dedication of hundreds of professionals around the world. The underlying system concept is expected to be flexible enough to withstand, and in fact grow with, the inevitable evolution of sociological and consumer needs.
Mr. David G. Wheeler, Scientific Atlanta, Singapore spoke on "MPEG Splicing and Bandwidth Management". He reviewed the problems incorporated when Splicing elementary streams and discussed the wider related systems issues. A technique for splicing video stream by managing the band- width allocation in the multiplexed was described and its benefits explained. He concluded that the issues relating to the Splicing of MPEG programmes, the process can be complex, requiring special encoder management if a seamless supply is to be assured. Further, the systems-level considerations are as far reaching as the new features that digital technology enables. Finally it was recommended that use of dynamic bandwidth allocation techniques in the splicer can ease the video splicing problem.

Mr. G.C.Jain, MCBS, Ahmedabad spoke on "Digital Video Compression -Present Status and Future Trends". He said that a large number of manufacturers have been able to provide equipment and systems based on  MPEG-2 (4:2:0) coding standards and these are  already in use for a variety of applications in  signal distribution (SNG, OBS & Satellite Distribution) all over the world while MPEG-2 I (4:2:2) coding techniques based hardware & software is now available for post production, programme exchange and archival purpose and their applications are also growing at a fast pace.
He told that variety of applications of MPEG-2 based coding schemes are now emerging in various areas such as telecommunications, interactive services, multi-media, distance education, post production & archivals. MPEG-2 based hardware & software is fast becoming common in computer industry and consumer applications. This convergence of computing, communications and consumer electronics using this new platform ofMPEG-2 standards is going to bring enormous opportunities and benefits to all concerned and will also benefit the society as a whole.
He also highlighted present status and future trends of compression technology and its practical applications in India and many parts of the world.


This session was dedicated to "Trends in Programme Production Techniques" and was chaired by Mr. R.K. Gupta, Chief Engineer, Doordarshan. The Programme Production techniques are getting revolutionised due to digital technology. Tremendous flexibility is now available in the News Room and for other programme production units. In this session following presentations were made:

  1. News Room: Dealing with new technology
  2. Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)
  3. Multilingual DVD Subtitling

Mr. B.K.Ranga Raj from Tektronix India summarised the trends in News Room technology which includes use of video servers under Windows environment, Fiber Optic channels and integration of video, audio, character generators, still stores and sub-titles in a single unit with help of LAN and WAN.
An automated News Room system has the  benefits of higher speed, more flexibility, better  reliability, fewer presentation mistakes thus  leading to sleeker news for the viewers and higher revenue for the broadcaster. 
In a very powerful way he showed impact of digital technology for news room programme production. Various aspects such as News  acquisition, storage, media management and archiving were presented. However, adopting such high level technology puts new demands  on programme personnel and operators.
The next paper was related to Digital Versatile  Disc (DVD) technology which was presented a by Mr. Vivek Khaneja of SGS Thomson. DVD  is a new kind of CD which has far more a capacity on 4.5" disc compared to the standard CD. DVD standard has emerged as a  consensus standard between two competing  standards -the multimedia CD (MMCD) from Philips/Sony and Super density CD (SDCD)  from Toshiba and Time Warner Group as a  result of efforts of a consortium comprising ten companies.

DVD family will have DVD- Video, DVD- Audio, DVD-ROM, DVD-Recordable and DVD-RAM (Erasable). However, DVD-Video  and DVD-ROM are being launched first.

DVD is physically of same dimension as CD.  However, against storage capacity of about 680  Mbyte on CD, DVD can store from 4.7 GB to 17 GB in its four variants namely, single sided single layer to double sided double layer. High ( density storage on DVD has become possible P due to use of Red Laser (650/635 nm) as a against Infrared Laser (780 nm) used in CD 11 which results in smaller dimensions for pits and s track pitch on the disc. a

DVD for Video supports MPEG-1 and v MPEG-2 video compression together with 8 0 audio channels, 32 subtitle channels and user a controls. Both MPEG audio, Linear PCM and DOLBY AC3 audio standards are supported. DVD provides interactive viewing of the contents in the form of random access to predetemined points on the disc, choice of 9 camera angles and choice of 8 parental control levels.
The DVD also incorporates safeguards in the form of Regional Coding by which particular DVDs can be played only in particular regions and copy protection both in analogue and digital domain.
DVD players costing around US$ 500 and above are already available from five manufacturers. About 200 DVD titles in Japan and about 150 in USA are currently available. Many more titles are in the offing. DVD RAM drives have also been announced recently by a manufacturers.
It is clear that DVD is likely to emerge as the recording medium of the future for multimedia, computer, video and audio applications. Likely volumes of production are expected to bring down the cost of the DVD drives, players as well as DVD media.
Concluding paper was dedicated to 'Multilingual DVD Subtitling'. The technology has been developed at CDAC, India and an effective presentation was made by Mr. S.S. Pujari.
CDAC had developed Language Independent Programme Subtitles (LIPS) technology allowing Digital Subtitles in different languages and coded on the teletext VBI lines simultaneously in 20 languages. The system is already proven and is in use by Doordarshan. CDAC has also developed and commercialised video CD authoring system. The paper outlined CDAC's proposal to develop DVD authoring software and to adopt the LIPS system for DVD subtitling.

Second Keynote -
The Conference session on January 21 started - with the Keynote address by Mr. N. Vittal, Chairman, PESB, India. The Chairman of the ~ session was Mr. B.K. De, E-in-C, Doordarshan. Mr. Vittal spoke on "Convergence of r Technologies and Regulatory Aspects". He I outlined the dynamics of technology and policy making process and indicated the power  paradox and the technology paradox. He said that these paradoxes should be overcome by conducting regular seminars where the policy  makers as well as technologists are invited so I that the decision makers are kept abreast of the technological innovations.

He pointed out that technology has social, economic and cultural impact and the  electronic media is a very economical, , environment friendly and space saving: technique of information dissemination.  Though the technology at times is brought for a  particular purpose but it may be used for a different purpose. For this he gave an example of Internet which was started for the information exchange in a post-war scenario but is now being used for electronic commerce and the broadcasting in addition to other applications. In this connection he emphasised that there should be a proper code.
He indicated that technology is always ahead of regulation e.g. in Cable TV. There are some other issues like cultural invasion in the case of satellite TV networks but he was of the view that people should have a broader view in such cases.
Since the convergence is taking place in computers, telecommunication and broadcasting, he outlined that the Indian policy should be framed with the following three main objectives:
-We should encourage intuitiveness and competition.
-The Indian technology should not be choked. -There should be healthy competition. Session 4

Session 4

This session dwelt on "Emerging Trends in Internet & Multimedia Broadcasting". Mr. Y.L. Aggarwal, President, PTC India Foundation chaired the session.
Dr. K.R.V. Subramanian, BITS, Pilani spoke on "Web Based Courseware -Issues, Challenges and Prospects". In his presentation he brought out the experience and the conviction of BITS in conducting various educational/ training programmes.
He outlined the present educational scenario which has a mismatch in the demand and supply and asserted that the access to the quality education is a major challenge. He was of the view that the traditional pedagogical approach is of major concern today since it lays emphasis on imbibing excessive information. Same method is used for imparting different type of skills and knowledge. He said that this approach assumed homogeneous inputs, relies only on a few sensory perception and is also ineffective for feedback/evaluation.
The multimedia courseware can address these issues in an effective and reliable manner. This courseware follows the basic principle of known to unknown. In this connection he outlined the various issues and challenges ahead and also gave the details of BITS virtual university concept which deploys multimedia courseware on Internet for a degree course.
Mr. Mohan Tambe, interAct Media spoke on "CHOIS -Cable TV based Home and Office Interactive Services". He outlined the need of interactive media services on cable TV networks for Indian conditions. He gave the details of the CHOIS system which has been implemented based on market survey and after analysing the various educational needs. Mr. Tambe indicated that the existing cable and  TV broadcasting had one sided approach and said that the best way for interactivity was by in using the existing infrastructure on TV rather than PCs.

He outlined the various ingredients of this : technology, its key factors and various services which could be offered. He concluded the HI session saying that the interactive media has to become defacto standard using existing ar infrastructure and it should be modular to grow in with demand.

A paper on "Data Broadcasting" was presented by Jean Baptite ROUX, Info Telecom, France. He gave an over-view of available techniques S for data broadcasting and discussed three modes of data transmission -RDS, DARC & DAB. 1 He indicated that existing FM RDS had a [ subscriber base of over four lacs in 1996 and it 1 was growing at the rate of 30% per year. Since RDS can transmit the data at the rate of 1.2 kbps only he was of the view that the DARC technique of Data Broadcasting which uses ,. data transmission on 76 kHz FM sub-carrier  can transmit data at much higher rate of 16  kbps and is, therefore, ideally suited for paging j services and also for audio mobile messaging and data accessing on Palmtop PCs. He asserted that with DARC, the subscriber base' should be over 8 lacs by the year 2001.
He concluded that the future of Data Broadcasting is certainly DAB but this is likely to take some more time to mature since the cost of receiver is a bit high at present.

The concluding paper on "Multimedia - Infrastructure Requirements, Issues, Challenges and Opportunities" was presented by Mr. T.R. Dua, Shyam Telecom Ltd. Mr. Dua gave an evolution of multimedia and the various multimedia services which can be offered. He spelt out the various technologies and other considerations in creating the infrastructure requirements for a multimedia network. He opined that information highway which is expected to evolve into a universal information superhighway to provide a large variety of multimedia services is an interactive way to users allover the world. In this connection he raised various issues, challenges, opportunities and also the future directions.
He concluded the session with the remarks that multimedia in India has a large scope as there are number of illiterate people in India. Since implementation of multimedia has still not started in India he stressed that we should take advantage of learning from others experience and applications in this field.

Session 5

This session dealt with "Dm, MMDS & Information Services -Strategic Technologies". Mr. P.S. Deodhar, President, APLAB, India was Chairman of the session.
Mr. Harry E. Mahon, Intelsat, USA spoke on "lntelsat Global Video Services". He described the details of the Intelsat system and told about the next generation of satellites. He also focused the discussion on DTH initiation in Asia-Pacific which has a large potential for the upcoming market. The delivery of the satellites will be by Dec. '98 and would have the special features –
Cross-connectivity to India Beari1 .
Transponder Allocation Switchability .
Automatic Gain Control .
Capacity :
30 x 36 MHz Ku-band transponders
Up to 55 dEW .
Beams and coverage tailored for India and China.
Two steerable bean1s over the Far
East and Indonesia/Malaysia.
The next paper on "VSNL Facilities for DTH" ~ was presented by Mr.D.K.Nimal, VSNL, India.

He had given the detailed account of present facilities and the future facilities being provided by VSNL. For DTH broadcasting in India VSNL will provide satellite platforms by leasing out transponder as well as uplinking facilities in the K- TV band. This service will be available from beginning of 99. Reception of this signal will be available by dishes as small as 45 cm. due to high power Ku band capacity. The availability of this service will be 99,7% throughout the year. This service will prove cost effective and would meet the international quality standards.
The next paper was from Mr. Simon Sutton, Comwave, USA on "Practical Guide to MMDS System Development". This paper provided general guidelines for MMDS system deployment. Areas of discussion included transmission special requirement, dual mode transmission system and head-end monitoring systems. He also reviewed important system improvements including increasing line of site (LOS) coverage and methods to minimise interference. He also told that Comwave SD series digital transmission allow MMDS operators to provide high quality digital progran1mmg.

Session 6

The last session was a panel discussion on "Competitive Broadcast Environment - Regulatory Aspects & Liberalisation Challenges". The Chaimlan of the session was Dr. N .Bhaskara Rao, Chaimlan, Centre for Media StUdies, New Delhi and panelists were Mr. P.S. Deodhar, President, APLAB, Dr. O.P. Kejariwal, DG, AIR, Mr.K.S.Sarma, DG, Doordarshan and Mr. Om P. Khushu, Director (Tech.), ABU.
The Chaimlan in his opening address highlighted the importance of the public opinion for contents of the progran1mes. He mentioned that such public opinions should guide regulatory mechanism for Prasar Bharati.

Mr. Deodhar emphasised the importance of team work in broadcast programme production. He also cautioned about the under-utilisation and optimisation of resources. While talking about liberalisation he suggested that more opportunities for utilisation of hardware could generate more revenue. He also highlighted the role of engineers to enhance revenue.
Mr. Sarma highlighted the role of journalists only in the electronic media who can adapt themselves to the Indian bureaucratic setup.
Mr. Khushu agreed on the media freedom and supported Mr. Deodhar's comments about important role engineers can play in the Prasar Bharati. He emphasised that Prasar Bharati must address bigger issues such as adoption of technical standards, formulation of technical strategy for sound and TV to follow such standards, starting of additional services including value added services on existing channels on transition strategy for shifting from analogue to digital equipment, competition policy for emerging successful in the competitive environment, protection of consumer interest, to frame guidelines for piracy related issues, to frame appropriate rules for regulation of broadcast facilities and programme content, licensing to private broadcasters, etc. In all the above issues the role of the Govt. is very important to provide quality broadcast to the public.

The Chairman agreed on the broad. issues discussed by the panelists.
The BES EXPO '98 Conference & Exhibition provided the broadcast professionals a unique opportunity for the exchange of views on the latest technological innovations in the field. It also offered a wide spectrum of products and demonstrations on the state-of-the-art equipment to enable the broadcasters to choose the latest equipment for their organisation. It is hoped that the new media technologies in broadcasting would fulfill the futuristic socio- economic needs of the country.